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Did You Know?
Expressive Language Skills are the way we communicate verbally and non-verbally. How about these skills begin developing even in the womb?! Research shows the more we speak to our newborns, babies, and toddlers, the more likely they are to respond!
Receptive Language Skills
Receptive Language skills determine how well we are able to comprehend in terms of listening, learning, and attention, even the way we process information to follow directions. Comprehension is a private event. We only know people understand based on how they respond or react. We typically understand more than we are able to produce expressively!
Fluency or stuttering has to do with the way in which we move freely or uninhibited from one sound, syllable, word, phrase, or sentence to the next. It is the way in which we communicate in a smooth error-free pattern. Did you know some stuttering is developmental?…other patterns however can be hereditary, neurological or anxiety-based. Regardless of the pattern or origin, they can be severely problematic for speakers often creating speech anxiety and ultimately hindering speech intelligibility.
Apraxia of Speech
Apraxia is often confused with Articulation difficulties. One of the hallmark features, however is very little or no babbling during infancy and sound distortion. When a child produces a target word…it continously changes (Ex. “puppy,” it may be produced as “peepy, poopy, puppy,”) even after multiple productions. The distortion is due to motor planning difficulties at the level of the motor cortex in the brain, which must be practiced via strategic speech drills to create muscle memory.
Voice Disorders typically occur due to vocal abuse… behavior such as constant loud talking, screaming, yelling, and even hours of singing. Vocal difficulties are often a result of resoannce issues relative to allergies, problems with tonsils, or adenoids. Difficulties with vocal abuse typically strain the vocal folds often altering the sounds quality of the vocal mechanism. Speech Pathologists typically use words such as raspy, hoarse, harsh, breathy, strained, rough, or “glottal fry” to decribe the use and charateristics of the voice.
Phonological Process Disorders
This is a fancy name for sound errors. Some children will produce “rope” as “wope” or “dog” as gog” and will often have a difficult time “unlearning” the error pattern. Articulation difficulties can be caused by a number of reasons, but one of the most common is recurring, undetected ear infections!
Dysphagia is the study and treatment of feeding and swallowing disorders. This difficulty is prevalent in children born prematurely, with underdeveloped musculature, older persons suffering from a stroke, a traumatic brain injury (TBI) including Seizure Disorders. In children with Autism, this is may persist due to sensory issues. Difficulty with feeding usually involves one, if not all of three T’s:
taste, textures, or temperature.